The State of Rhode Island Public Education, 2014

a ri-can research report

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The State of RI Public Education

Preface

The work of transforming our public schools is filled with joys and success and challenges and change. As we head into the final year of the Rhode Island Department of Education’s five-year strategic plan, Rhode Island has certainly seen much success and much change. But our work of ensuring that every child in our state has access to a great public school is not done.

In the past five years, Rhode Island has made remarkable strides in reforming our system to be one that is set up to prepare students to be college and career-ready. We’ve changed the way we’re funding education using a student-centric funding formula to ensure that money follows the child to whatever public school he or she attends. We’ve expanded school choice and opened more high-performing schools for our most underserved students. We’ve instituted an educator evaluation system that promotes a culture of improvement and excellence, reformed career and technical standards, created more rigorous teacher certification requirements and have begun the hard work of setting higher standards for all kids with our adoption of the Common Core State Standards.

And the change is starting to take shape. High school performance across the state has shown a positive upward trend since 2009, with increases in proficiency in both math and reading on the NECAP by 9 percentage points and 8 percentage points, respectively.1 Rhode Island also scored higher than the national average for the first time in all four NAEP tests in both reading and math.

Of course, there have been challenges too. Though our high school NECAP performance has improved from 2009 to 2013, we still have many students not prepared for college and career. In the 2012-13 school year, 69 percent of the students had to enroll in at least one remedial course at the Community College of Rhode Island, costing students around $5.4 million-all without earning college credit.2

This report serves as an annual look at the anatomy of our system, who it serves and how it’s working. We believe in the power of data to drive conversations about change and how to move forward.

The most important lesson of the past five years has been the need to work together. We may not always agree on every policy or strategy to transform our schools, but the goal is the same: to give Rhode Island students a world-class education, to hold all of our students to the highest standards and to prepare our graduates to be ready for the world in which they will live and work.


Christine Lopes
Executive Director, RI-CAN

The students

The first step to understanding our school system is understanding who it serves. Find out more about the students who attend our schools, including their demographic breakdown and the kinds of schools they’re enrolled in.

Who we’re educating

Demographic breakdown, 2012–20133

Where our students are being educated, 2012–20134–5

The system

Take a look at the system we’ve built for our students: who we’ve hired to fill our classrooms, the laws schools and educators must abide by, pre-K access for our tiniest learners, where Rhode Island public charter schools are located and how much we spend on it all.

Who’s teaching

For the 2012–2013 school year

Rhode Island teaching candidates: Program breakdown7 (2010 graduates)

Rhode Island education policies

Teacher staffing policies

Teacher evaluation

Teachers must be evaluated annually.

Teachers are given one of four rankings: highly effective, effective, developing and ineffective.

Student learning through Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) is the most significant component of the evaluation score. State assessments are not currently counted towards evaluations.8

The Basic Education Plan suggests that teachers rated ineffective for more than 2 years should be dismissed, and the state will not renew the certification of any teacher who has been rated ineffective for 5 years.9

Teacher tenure

Title 16, Chapter 13 of Rhode Island General Laws defines the probationary period before awarding tenure as “Three annual contracts within five successive school years” and awards tenure after the probationary period. The statute also states “Teachers who complete the probationary period shall be considered in continuous service and shall not be subject to annual renewal or nonrenewal of their contracts. No tenured teacher in continuous service shall be dismissed except for good and just cause.”10

Tenured teachers may be dismissed if they are rated ineffective for two years.11

Districts have been instructed not to make staffing decisions based solely on seniority. When layoffs must be made, the decisions are based on teacher evaluation results.12

Teacher compensation13

District salary schedules must factor in years of experience and advanced degrees.

Rhode Island does not offer performance pay or financial incentives for teachers who have relevant prior work experience, work in high-need schools, or teach in shortage subject areas.

Teacher certification/ licensure14

Through the traditional certification route, three types of teacher certificates are awarded based on a tiered system: Initial Educator Certificate, Professional Educator Certificate and Advanced Educator Certificate.

The Initial Educator Certificate is valid for three years; The Professional Educational Certificate is valid for five years; The Advanced Educator Certificate is valid for seven years.

Licensure advancement and renewal are based on teacher effectiveness.

Alternative teacher certification15

Rhode Island allows alternative certification programs; The Alternate Route Preliminary Certificate is valid for one year, after which these teachers may be eligible for the Initial Educator Certificate if they meet all the requirements.

Admission requirements for the alternate route to certification evaluate past academic performance and offer flexibility for non-traditional candidates.

Rhode Island’s public charter school laws16

Public charter school cap

No more than 35 public charters may be granted to operate in Rhode Island at the same time.

Authorizers

The Board of Education is the only entity in the entire state allowed to authorize public charter schools.

The Board of Education is not accountable to an authorizer oversight body.

Accountability

Public charter school contracts are expected to lay out the obligations of the authorizer, as well as benchmarks for student learning, financial performance, student and teacher attrition and parent and student satisfaction.

Public charter schools must provide a yearly report to parents, the community, the local school committee and the state commissioner of education that outlines the progress made in the previous year on the charter’s objectives.

A charter may be revoked if, after three consecutive years of operation, the school is not deemed a “high-performing” public charter school that has demonstrated substantial progress improving student achievement and has the management and leadership necessary to establish a thriving, financially viable school.

Facilities

The Rhode Island School Housing Aid program reimburses public charter schools for 30 percent of their school construction and renovation costs, regardless of the location of the school or the population served.

Rhode Island does not grant the right of first refusal, which allows charter schools to purchase or lease at or below market value closed, unused or underused public school facilities.

Rhode Island law does not require equal access to existing state facilities programs available to traditional public schools and only provides state reimbursement for purchased space.

Funding

Public charter school students receive the same per-pupil funding as traditional students.

Rhode Island and the Common Core State Standards

44 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards in English and math, and one state has adopted the English standards only.

Pre-K access

A glimpse at pre-K access in Rhode Island

National Institute of Early Education Research: The State of Preschool, 201221

108
Total state program enrollment
2,206
Number of students enrolled in federally funded Head Start programs
81
Number of students enrolled in state-funded Head Start programs
0%
Percentage of 3-year-olds enrolled in state pre-K programs
7%
Percentage of 3-year-olds enrolled in Head Start programs
No ranking, because no Rhode Island 3-year-olds are served.
National Institute for Early Education Research’s access ranking for 3-year-olds
1%
Percentage of 4-year-olds enrolled in state pre-K programs
13%
Percentage of 4-year-olds enrolled in Head Start programs
40/40
National Institute for Early Education Research’s access ranking for 4-year-olds

Charter School Geography

RHODE ISLAND PUBLIC CHARTER SCHOOLS AND THE COMMUNITIES THEY SERVE22

The Cost

Rhode Island's new school funding formula23

Per–pupil spending, 201124

How per–pupil funding was allocated in 201125

How the system is working

We now know who our students are and how their school system works. The next question: how are they faring in that system? Take a journey through Rhode Island’s K-12 system and find out how well students are learning each step of the way.

elementary school

Elementary school performance has remained relatively stagnant over the past five years, with stubborn, persistent gaps between students of color and low-income students and their white, middle and higher-income peers. On the NAEP there is more than a 30-percentage point proficiency gap between black and white students, Latino and white students and low-income and non-low-income students in both reading and math.

NECAP proficiency, 4th grade26

Percentage of RI 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the NECAP in 2013

NAEP proficiency, 4th grade27–28

Percentage of RI 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013

District comparison29–31

Percentage of RI 4th-graders proficient or above on the NECAP in 2013

Regional comparison32

Percentage of 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013

  National Rhode Island Connecticut Massachusetts Maine Vermont New Hampshire
 
Math 41 42 45 58 47 52 59
Reading 34 38 43 47 37 42 45
  Math Reading
National 41 34
Rhode Island 42 38
Connecticut 45 43
Massachusetts 58 47
Maine 47 37
Vermont 52 42
New Hampshire 59 45

Nation's Report Card trends33–34

Percentage of RI 4th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013, Math and Reading

NECAP proficiency gap, 4th grade35

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points).

Nation's Report Card proficiency gap, 4th grade36

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points).

Nation's Report Card achievement gap, 4th grade37

The scale-score point difference in the average test scores of white students versus students of color, and the difference between the average test scores of low-income students and non-low-income students

  White/Black White/Latino Low-income/Non low-income
Math 25.7 24.1 24.5
Reading 27.7 31.6 32.0
  Math Reading
White/Black 25.7 27.7
White/Latino 24.1 31.6
Low-income/Non low-income 24.5 32.0

middle school

Our middle school math performance on the NAEP has steadily improved since 2003, boasting a 12-point gain in the past decade. But the improvement is contrasted against the overall gaps between Rhode Island and our neighboring state of Massachusetts. Rhode Island eighth-graders score 12 percentage points lower in English and almost 20 percentage points lower in math. In order to prepare students for high school and college rigor, we have to make sure middle school isn’t the beginning of learning loss.

NECAP proficiency, 8th grade38

Percentage of RI 8th-graders proficient or advanced on NECAP in 2013

NAEP proficiency, 8th grade39–40

Percentage of RI 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013

District comparison41–43

Percentage of RI 8th-graders proficient or advanced on NECAP in 2013

Regional comparison44

Percentage of 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013

  National Rhode Island Connecticut Massachusetts Maine Vermont New Hampshire
 
Math 34 36 37 55 40 47 47
Reading 34 36 45 48 38 45 44
  Math Reading
National 34 34
Rhode Island 36 36
Connecticut 37 45
Massachusetts 55 48
Maine 40 38
Vermont 47 45
New Hampshire 47 44

Nation's Report Card trends45–46

Percentage of RI 8th-graders proficient or advanced on the Nation's Report Card in 2013, Math and Reading

NECAP proficiency gap, 8th grade47

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points).

Nation's Report Card proficiency gap, 8th grade48

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points).

Nation's Report Card achievement gap, 8th grade49

(Scale-score differences)

  White/Black White/Latino Low-income/Non low-income
Math 30.8 30.7 32.1
Reading 25.3 25.9 26.2
  Math Reading
White/Black 30.8 25.3
White/Latino 30.7 25.9
Low-income/Non low-income 32.1 26.2

high school

High school performance is a bright spot for Rhode Island, as we’ve seen improvements over the past five years on the state assessment. But math continues to be the big driver of challenges for our 11th-grade students as they prepare for college and career. Statewide, just over one-third of students are proficient in 11th-grade math and those numbers are even starker for our most disadvantaged populations. Only three percent of English-language learners and six percent of special education students tested proficient in math on their last NECAP exam.

NECAP proficiency, 11th grade50

Percentage of RI 11th-graders proficient or advanced on NECAP in 2013

District comparison51–53

Percentage of RI 11th-graders proficient or advanced on NECAP in 2013

NECAP proficiency gap, 11th grade54

The difference in proficiency rates between white students and students of color, and low-income students and non-low-income students (in percentage points).

Graduation rate55

Four-year cohort

Graduation rate56

Percentage of students who graduated, by race

After graduation

The ultimate goal of Rhode Island’s public school system is to prepare all of its graduates to thrive in the post-high school world — whether they’re going first to college or entering the workforce straightaway. So, are we meeting that goal? To find out, we look at how well Rhode Island students do on college entrance exams, the rate at which they graduate from college, and what they can expect to earn in their lifetimes.

College entrance exams

Just as there are gaps between the academic performance of white students and students of color, there are also gaps in the likelihood that those students will take—and do well on—college entrance exams. Last year, 44 percent of white students met the four college readiness benchmarks on the ACT, more than four times the rate of black students. Fortunately, however, those numbers seem to be improving. In 2007, only 4 percent of Latino students graduated having taking an Advanced Placement exam. Just five years later, that rate has jumped to 17 percent.

Advanced Placement exams57–59

Percentage of graduates leaving high school having taken an AP exam

Percentage of graduates scoring 3+ on an AP exam at any point in high school

Trends in SAT participation60–63

Total students in graduating class who took the SAT at any point in high school

Trends in SAT performance64–67

(1550 is the college and career-readiness benchmark total score)

Regional comparison of SAT performance, 201368–74

(1550 is the college and career-readiness benchmark total score)

ACT75–76

Percentage of test takers meeting college readiness benchmarks

Percentage of test takers meeting college readiness benchmarks by race, 2013

College completion

While the proportion of Rhode Island students who graduate on time from four-year public universities is slightly higher than the national average, the state trails other states in the region. Latino students are least likely to graduate from four-year universities, while white and Asian students have the best chance to succeed. Across all groups, the graduation rate for two-year public colleges is significantly lower than the graduation rate for four-year public universities.

graduation rate77–79

Regional graduation rate80–81

Remediation rate at two-year colleges, class of 2007: 63 percent82

Expected lifetime earnings

In general, the more education you’ve had, the more you’re likely to make—which is why it is so important to set our students up for success after high school. In Rhode Island, those with a bachelor’s degree take home an annual salary that is, on average, more than double what those who have not gone beyond high school do. Regionally, Rhode Island high school graduates are in the middle of the pack when it comes to annual income.

Average yearly earnings and educational attainment83–88

Data from 2011 Census

  Rhode Island Connecticut Massachusetts Maine Vermont New Hampshire
 
High School dropout $ 10,894 13,122  9,676 12,153 13,643 10,878
High School graduate $ 25,383 29,591 28,550 24,902 26,297 29,574
Some college $ 29,181 32,043 33,330 29,695 35,835 33,748
Bachelor’s degree and above $ 65,387 76,724 68,803 52,890 51,829 59,748
  High School dropout High School graduate Some college Bachelor’s degree and above
$ $ $ $
Rhode Island 10,894 25,383 29,181 65,387
Connecticut 13,122 29,591 32,043 76,724
Massachusetts  9,676 28,550 33,330 68,803
Maine 12,153 24,902 29,695 52,890
Vermont 13,643 26,297 35,835 51,829
New Hampshire 10,878 29,574 33,748 59,748

Average lifetime earnings and educational attainment, 200889

Rhode Island job openings90

By skill level in 2018 (projected)

Conclusion

The facts in this report make a few things clear: the last five years of change have set the stage for our students to be successful. But one of the reasons for success has been our relentless commitment to transformation, even when we disagree. In order to continue moving forward in 2014, we need every Rhode Islander’s help. Three years ago, we were founded on the belief that every child can achieve at high levels. We will work to bring you the facts and tell you which policies will continue to move the ball forward for kids in our state. In exchange, we hope you will use your voice to make great schools a reality for all our kids. Together, we can raise the bar for every student and make every Rhode Island school a success story.

endnotes

  1. 1. “Rhode Island’s NECAP Math, Reading, and Writing Results for Grades 3-8 & 11,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, p. 7, accessed March 5, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/Fall_2013_RI_NECAP_Results_Public_Report_FINAL.pdf
  2. 2. “CCRI President Reports Fewer Students Need Remedial Courses,” Warwick Beacon, November 12, 2013, accessed March 5, 2014, http://www.warwickonline.com/stories/CCRI-president-reports-fewer-students-need-remedial-courses,87308 See also, Dan McGowan, “CCRI Students Spent $5.4M on Remedial Courses that Carry No College Credit,” WPRI Eyewitness News, April 5, 2013, accessed March 5, 2014, http://blogs.wpri.com/2013/04/05/ccri-students-spent-5-4m-on-remedial-courses-that-carry-no-college-credit/
  3. 3. “Total Population of Students, Teachers and Schools in Rhode Island,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/state/ri
  4. 4. “Total Population of Students, Teachers and Schools in Rhode Island,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/state/ri
  5. 5. “RI School Districts,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/StudentsFamilies/RIPublicSchools/SchoolDistricts.aspx
  6. 6. “Total Population of Students, Teachers and Schools in Rhode Island,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/state/ri
  7. 7. “NCTQ Teacher Prep: Findings by State – Rhode Island,” National Council on Teacher Quality, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/teacherPrep/findings/stateFindings.do?state=RI#institutions See also “Rhode Island,” Teach For America, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.teachforamerica.org/where-we-work/rhode-island
  8. 8. “State of the States 2013 Connect the Dots: Using Evaluations to Teacher Effectiveness to Inform Policy and Practice,” National Council on Teacher Quality, pp. 7, 34, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/State_of_the_States_2013_Using_Teacher_Evaluations_NCTQ_Report
  9. 9. “State of the States 2012: Teacher Effectiveness Policies,” National Council on Teacher Quality, p.24, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/State_of_the_States_2012_Teacher_Effectiveness_Policies_NCTQ_Report
  10. 10. §16-3-3, Rhode Island General Laws, accessed March 5, 2014, http://webserver.rilin.state.ri.us/Statutes/title16/16-13/16-13-3.HTM
  11. 11. “State of the States 2012: Teacher Effectiveness Policies,” National Council on Teacher Quality, p.24, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/State_of_the_States_2012_Teacher_Effectiveness_Policies_NCTQ_Report
  12. 12. “State of the States 2013 Connect the Dots: Using Evaluations to Teacher Effectiveness to Inform Policy and Practice,” National Council on Teacher Quality, p. 20, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/State_of_the_States_2013_Using_Teacher_Evaluations_NCTQ_Report
  13. 13. Policy Issue: Compensation,” National Council on Teacher Quality, accessed March 5, 2014, http://www.nctq.org/statePolicy/policyIssueFindings.do?policyIssueId=2&masterGoalId=20&stateId=40
  14. 14. “State of Rhode Island Regulations of the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education: Regulations Governing the Certification of Educators in Rhode Island,” Rhode Island Board of Regents, pp. 43-45, accessed March 5, 2014, http://sos.ri.gov/documents/archives/regdocs/released/pdf/DESE/6577.pdf
  15. 15. “State of Rhode Island Regulations of the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education: Regulations Governing the Certification of Educators in Rhode Island,” pp. 46-49.
  16. 16. “Measuring up to the Model,” National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, accessed January 29, 2014, http://www.publiccharters.org/get-the-facts/law-database/states/RI/
  17. 17. “Common Core Implementation,” The Pew Charitable Trusts, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.pewstates.org/projects/stateline/headlines/states-train-teachers-on-common-core-85899495529#map.
  18. 18. “Common Core State Standards Initiative,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Common-Core/Common-Core-State-Standards-Initiative-FAQ-8-22-11.pdf.
  19. 19. “Common Core State Standards Initiative,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Common-Core/Common-Core-State-Standards-Initiative-FAQ-8-22-11.pdf.
  20. 20. “Common Core State Standards Initiative,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Common-Core/Common-Core-State-Standards-Initiative-FAQ-8-22-11.pdf.
  21. 20. “The State of Preschool 2012,” The National Institute for Early Education Research, p. 120-121, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/yearbook2012.pdf
  22. 21. “Rhode Island Charter Schools,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Students-and-Families-Great-Schools/Charter-Schools/RI-Charter-School-Info.pdf
  1. 22. “Funding Formula Summary,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Funding-and-Finance-Wise-Investments/Funding-Sources/State-Education-Aid-Funding-Formula/Funding-Formula-Summary-2-19-11-version.pdf
  2. 23. “Public Education Finances: 2011,” United States Census Bureau, p. 8, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/11f33pub.pdf
  3. 24. “Public Education Finances: 2011,” United States Census Bureau, p. 8, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/11f33pub.pdf
  4. 25. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 4 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI04.pdf
  5. 26. “Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report: Rhode Island Grade 4 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014465RI4.pdf
  6. 27. “Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report: Rhode Island Grade 4 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014464RI4.pdf
  7. 28. “School and District Data – Student Characteristics,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/search/schools-and-districts
  8. 29. “NECAP Reporting – District-Level Reports,” Measured Progress, accessed February 18, 2014, https://reporting.measuredprogress.org/NECAPpublicRI/select.aspx
  9. 30. Ibid
  10. 31. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  11. 32. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  12. 33. Ibid
  13. 34. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 4 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI04.pdf
  14. 35. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  15. 36. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  16. 37. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 8 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI08.pdf
  17. 38. “Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report: Rhode Island Grade 8 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014465RI8.pdf
  18. 39. “Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report: Rhode Island Grade 8 Public Schools,” The Nation’s Report Card, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/stt2013/pdf/2014464RI8.pdf
  19. 40. “School and District Data – Student Characteristics,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/search/schools-and-districts
  20. 41. “NECAP Reporting – District-Level Reports,” Measured Progress, accessed February 18, 2014, https://reporting.measuredprogress.org/NECAPpublicRI/select.aspx
  21. 42. Ibid
  22. 43. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  1. 44. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  2. 45. Ibid
  3. 46. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 8 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI08.pdf
  4. 47. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  5. 48. “NAEP Data Explorer,” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed January 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/dataset.aspx
  6. 49. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 11 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI11.pdf
  7. 50. “School and District Data – Student Characteristics,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/search/schools-and-districts
  8. 51. “NECAP Reporting – District-Level Reports,” Measured Progress, accessed February 18, 2014, https://reporting.measuredprogress.org/NECAPpublicRI/select.aspx
  9. 52. Ibid
  10. 53. “Fall 2013 Beginning of Grade 11 NECAP Tests: State Results,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Instruction-and-Assessment-World-Class-Standards/Assessment/NECAP/Results/NECAP1314FStaReTestRI11.pdf
  11. 54. “Statewide Data – Four Year Graduation Rate,” Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed February 18, 2014, http://infoworks.ride.ri.gov/state/ri
  12. 55. “Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2009-10,” National Center for Education Statistics, pp. 7, 9, accessed January, 13, 2014, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013309rev.pdf
  13. 56. “The 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation, State Supplement: Rhode Island,” College Board, accessed January 13, 2013, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/rtn/9th-annual/9th-annual-ap-report-state-supplement-rhode-island.pdf
  14. 57. Ibid
  15. 58. Ibid
  16. 59. “Enrollment, Dropout and Graduation Data, “Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.ride.ri.gov/InformationAccountability/RIEducationData/EnrollmentGraduationData.aspx
  17. 60. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: Rhode Island,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/RI_13_03_03_01.pdf
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  1. 69. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: Massachusetts,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/MA_13_03_03_01.pdf
  2. 70. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: Connecticut,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/CT_13_03_03_01.pdf
  3. 71. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: Maine,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/ME_13_03_03_01.pdf
  4. 72. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: Vermont,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/VT_13_03_03_01.pdf
  5. 73. “2013 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report: New Hampshire,” College Board, p.1, accessed January 13, 2014, http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/research/2013/NH_13_03_03_01.pdf
  6. 74. “ACT Profile Report: Graduating Class 2013 Rhode Island,” ACT, p. 7, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2013/pdf/profile/RhodeIsland.pdf
  7. 75. “ACT Profile Report: Graduating Class 2013 Rhode Island,” ACT, pp. 18-22, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2013/pdf/profile/RhodeIsland.pdf
  8. 76. “College Completion: Rhode Island Public Colleges (2-year),” The Chronicle of Higher Education, accessed January 13, 2014, http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/state/#state=ri§or=public_two
  9. 77. “College Completion: Rhode Island Public Colleges (4-year),” accessed January 13, 2014. http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/state/#state=ri§or=public_four
  10. 78. Ibid
  11. 79. “College Completion: Rhode Island Public Colleges (4-year),” accessed January 13, 2014. http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/state/#state=ri§or=public_four
  12. 80. Ibid
  13. 81. “Rhode Island’s College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/RhodeIslandCCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  14. 82. “Rhode Island’s College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/RhodeIslandCCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  15. 83. “Massachusetts’ College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/Massachusetts_CCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  16. 84. “Connecticut College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/ConnecticutCCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  17. 85. “Maine College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/Maine_CCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  18. 86. “Vermont College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/Vermont-CCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  19. 87. “New Hampshire College-and Career-Ready Commitment,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/files/NewHampshire-CCR_FactSheet-Sept2012.pdf
  20. 88. “Rhode Island,” Achieve, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.achieve.org/rhode-island Note: click on the slide deck and view slide 17 to access the data.
  21. 89. Middle-Skill Jobs State-by-State: Rhode Island,” National Skills Coalition, accessed January 13, 2014, http://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/fact-sheets/state-fact-sheets/middle-skill/nsc_middleskillfs_rhodeisland.pdf